Pishevari a Puppet or a Revolutionary !!!!

Stalin’s Letter to Pishevari ….
May 8th, 1946

To comrade Pishevari,
It seems to me that you misjudge the existing situation, inside Iran as well as in the international dimension.

First, You wanted to meet all revolutionary demands of Azerbaijan right now. But the existing situation precludes realization of this program. Lenin used to put forth revolutionary demands as practical demands, as practical demands only when the country experienced a grave revolutionary crisis aggravated by the unsuccessful war with external enemy. Such was the case in 1905 during the unsuccessful war with Japan and in 1917 during the unsuccessful war with Germany. You here want to emulate Lenin. This is very good and laudable.
However, the situation in Iran today is totally different. There is no profound revolutionary crisis in Iran. There are few workers in Iran and they are poorly organized. The Iranian peasantry still does not show any serious activism. Iran is not waging a war with external enemy that could weaken Iran’s revolutionary circles through a military failure. Consequently, there is no such situation in Iran that could support the tactics of Lenin in 1905 and 1917.
Second, Certainly, you could have counted on a success in the cause of the struggle for the revolutionary demands of the Azerbaijani people had the Soviet troops continued to remain in Iran. But we could no longer keep them in Iran, mainly because the presence of Soviet troops in Iran undercut the foundation of our liberationist policies in Europe and Asia. The British and Americans said to us that if Soviet troops could stay in Iran, then why could not British troops stay in Egypt, Syria, Indonesia, Greece, and also the American troops - in China, Iceland, in Denmark. Therefore we decided to withdraw troops from Iran and China, in order to seize this tool from the hands of the British and Americans, to unleash the liberation movement in the colonies and thereby to render our liberationist policy more justified and efficient. You as a revolutionary will certainly understand that we could not have done otherwise.
Third, All this said, one can come to the following conclusion with regard to the situation in Iran.
There is no profound revolutionary crisis in Iran. There is no state of war in Iran with external enemies, and, consequently, no military failures which could weaken the reaction and aggravate the crisis. So long as Soviet troops stayed in Iran, you had a chance to unfold the struggle in Azerbaijan and organize a broad democratic movement with far-reaching demands. But our troops had to leave and left Iran. What do have now in Iran? We have a conflict of the government of Qavam with the Anglophile circles in Iran who represent the most reactionary elements of Iran. As reactionary as Qavam used to be in the past, now he must, in the interests of self-defense and the defense of his government, carry out some democratic reforms and seek support among democratic elements in Iran. What must be our tactics under these conditions? I believe we should use this conflict to wrench concession from Qavam, to give him support, to isolate the Anglophiles, thus, and to create some basis for the further democratization of Iran. From this assumption stems all our advice to you. Of course, one could adopt a different tactic: to spit on everything, to break with Qavam and thereby ensure there a victory of the Anglophile reactionaries. Yet, this would not have been a tactic, but stupidity. This would have been in effect a betrayal of the cause of the Azerbaijani people and Iranian democracy.
Forth, You, as I found out, say that we first raised you to the skies and then let you down into the precipice and disgraced you. If this is true, it surprises us. What has really happened? We used the technique here that every revolutionary knows. In the situation similar to the situation of Iran today, if one wants to achieve a certain minimum of demands pursued by the movement, to movement has to run ahead, to progress beyond the minimal demands and to create a threat for the government, to ensure a possibility of concessions on the part of the government. Had you not run far ahead, you would not have had a chance in the current situation in Iran to achieve these demands  “ concessions”  that the government of Qavam has to make now. Such is the law of revolutionary movement. There could not be even mention of any disgrace for you. It is very strange that you think that we could have let you down in disgrace. On the contrary, if you behave reasonably and seek with our moral support the demands that would legalize essentially the existing factual position of Azerbaijan, then you would be blessed both by the Azeris and by Iran as a pioneer of the progressive democratic movement in the Middle East.
J. Stalin

Dede korkut, Dede Qorqud

Dresden Manuscript of "Kitabi Dedem Qorqud" …

Those interested in the manuscript can leave me an e-mail address to get assistance & more information about it.

Bu  kitabi görmek isterseniz, e-mail adresinizi  birakiniz, yardimci ola bilirim.

Vatican Manuscript of "Kitabi Dedem Qorqud"

The Origin of Türkic Script.

There are two main hypotheses about origin of Türkic “runic” script. The most of authors handled with it, supposed a Semitic origin of the script which came to Türks through Iranian or Greek prototypes (loan hypothesis).1 The rest scholars argued that it had autochthonic invention developed from ideography and pictography including the tamga (autochthonic hypothesis).2 Both sides do not exclude the mutual influences and path dependence of both roots. Both hypotheses do not provide an explanation of extraction of all letters of the script (table 7).3
Without full-length going to previous hypotheses and opinions, we would like to suggest a hypothesis that Türkic “Runic” script genetically traces its roots back to civilization which began to set in its developmentin the period of Shan-Ying and Zhou (II – I millennia B.C.). The origin of above-mentioned dynasties and cultures is still uncertain, but its cultural clusters spread among many peoples and cultures in the Eastern Eurasia.
In our opinion, Türkic peoples were bearer of (some) Shan-Ying and Zhou traditions (or inherited them through historical intercommunications) and the origin of Türkic script is closely related to the two elements that underlay the ancient Zhou canon Zhouyi (or Yijing), line and abortive line. Line and angle (abortive line turned to angle) constitute all letters of the Türkic alphabet, sometimes with curved varieties: curved line and semicircle (curved angle) and with account of this cause, we would like to name Türkic “runic” script as ‘linearly-angular’. 
The raising a new problem of origin of Türkic script from initial elements of Yijing hexagrams requires putting forward two groups of evidences in favour of suggested hypothesis. First group concerns evidences of intrinsic links of extraction of all letters of Türkic alphabet based on technique of operating with two suggested elements connected both language and script. Second one suggests the data retrieval which could help to connect Türkic culture with some main distinctive characteristic features remained from Shan-Ying and Zhou civilization(s). Hence we divided the article into two parts described above-mentioned groups of tasks.

Important Note: In the article we used both the real etymologies and meanings of Türkic words and the popular ones which could be used in the making of legends and mythology in ancient and medieval times.
Part I

Initial Elements of Türkic Alphabet  
The line, angle, triangle, square, curved line, semicircle and circle are the main geometric figures used in Türkic script. Line and angle (curved line and semicircle) underlie more complex entitles as triangle, square, and circle.4
Symmetry, reflection, asymmetry, turn, and curving are the main operations to produce the letters in Türkic script.
The principle, when the diverse combinations of two same, identical elements give birth to the many new signs and symbols, is used in ancient canon Yijing consisted from 64 hexagrams employed for divination and fortune-telling.5
The Zhouyi (Alternation Canon) includes canonic part the Yijing and commenting part the Yizhuang. The 64 hexagrams – peculiar graphic symbols composed of 6 strokes (intact and abortive) set one over another in all combinatorially possible conjunctions.

The eight trigrams are considered as half components of hexagrams. The origin of canonic part of Zhou I traditionally bound with divination practice and goes back to the end II – beginning of I millennium B.C. The most ancient palmistry modes in Zhouyi were converted to number system of mathematics-like operations with numbers and geometric figures to “divide all qualities of countless multitudes of things by types”.6
The essence of this cultural-intellectual process reduced to that people determined the simplest components of the Universe and began to systematize outward things based on mentioned initial constituents. We would like to argue that the region of civilization where philosophers organized, categorized, and sort out the world on the basis of two elements (yin-yang), could produce its own peculiar alphabetical system. This process logically bound with common basic tendency of development of philosophy in the region which reflected, for example, in Taoism, when Taoist alchemists, searching for elixir of life, were trying to produce pure substances.

The Türkic language(s) subdued to strong dual system of vowel and consonants harmony (soft/hard, open/close, voiced/surd) and it could influence [philosophers] to produce alphabet based on two elements system. The dual system could be observed even in words meant contrary kinds of things: aca ‘–’ / ‘>’ eçi, aγ|qa ‘–’ / ‘>’ öge, aba ‘–’ / ‘>’ apa – an older brothers and sisters from paternal [‘–’] and maternal sides [‘>’]. As appears from the above, here we can pose a question about strict, literal sense of the words ‘yin and ‘yang. It could be connected with ene/ana [variation ini/ïnï (?)]7
 mother/father (?), female/male (?). Samples from Türkic epitaphs of ~731 A. D.: ‘’ inijegün – ‘junior kin’ [from maternal side] (jegen – modern nephew from female’s side), ini eçi – ‘old and little brothers’ [from maternal side]. On the etymology of the word “Taiji” see below: Part II, Ïrq Bitik. Thus Türkic alphabet is the result of combinations of two initial elements extracted from words and connected to language.

Graphic Affixment of Türkic Letters to Türkic Language(s)
The letters of Türkic are reflected common features of Türkic language(s) and probably dialectic differences and inner structure of script closely coupled with particular qualities of Türkic language(s).

 As table 3 shows, letters O/U and Ö/Ü are reflected “proto-Türkic” language, as for letters A/Ä and Ï/I, they also indicate gradation of slender and broad, anterior and posterior vowels described first by W. Radloff:8 al ~ ïl ~ il ‘front’, ana ~ enä ‘mother’, ẹ(r)- ~ i(r)- ‘[to] be’, aq- ~ ïq- ‘flow’, te- ~ ti- ‘speak’, bič- ~ piči- ‘cut’ – bïčaq ‘knife’, bučuq ‘half’, taš//daš ~ tïš//dïš ‘outside’, jaŋï ~ jeni ‘new’ ect.9  The Türkic inscriptions of VII-IX A.D. belong to different Türkic peoples, bearers of j-language (Oquz, Qïpçaq: ajaq ‘foot’, qoj- ‘put’), d-language (Uigur: adaq, qod-), z-language (Kyrgyz: azaq, qoz-). Meanwhile the language of Türkic inscriptions written by linearly-angular script is language of super-dialectical literary standard which allows phonetically-morphologic variations;10 there are also such phonetic phenomena which do not depend on positional or phonetic conditions: parallel usage of: i ~ ẹ; s ~ š, š ~ s; lt ~ ld, rt ~ rd, nt ~ nd, nk ~ ng; b ~ m.11

Table 4

These phonetic phenomena are taken into consideration in the Türkic script. The parallel vowels and consonants are reflected the internal structure of Türkic language(s) and these interconnections between parallel letters mean the local origin of the script and its subordination to dual elements’ system [tables 3, 4].
The nj case considered here in connection with theory of A. von Gaben [table 5].12

Table 5

The rest letters are also made by usage of line and angle (with curved clones) sometimes with additional element – dot, which probably symbolized human being. The comparison with other hypotheses brings confirmable result, when explanations of origin of the letters of Türkic alphabet from Semitic one or/and from ideography and pictography suggest the graphic similarities and resemblances between prototypes and letters of Türkic alphabet, but do not mean internal connections between letters bound by their dual parallel usage in Türkic language(s) [tables 7].

Three ‘Peculiar’ Letters

There are three peculiar letters called by Turkologists as syllabic: oq/uq ~ qo/qu; ök/ük ~ kö/kü; ïq/qï. They recognized as additional; A. M. Scherbak supposed that “creator of runic script… introduced [them] for increasing elements of cryptography”. They do not mean syllable always; sometimes they written with corresponding vowels. Scherbak  called these letters as pseudo- syllabic.13
 The extraction of these letters and probably consonant diphthongs (lt, nt~nd, ) could be connected to Chinese hieroglyphic script.
Taking into consideration that two first letters resembles wide-spread masculine and feminine symbols, we supposed their meaning and linked them to paternal and maternal sides in both divine and laity [see: table 6]. An existence of celestial bless boon ‘qut’ should be reflected and duplicated by similar terrestrial blessing, which is probably ‘qït’.
It is possible version found by logical way described below; there is a name from Uigur juridical documents: Qïtï Qara,14 which probably means ‘pure blessing of Umaj (Earth)’. Among Türks there is different reading of this letter: ‘qïv’/’qïb’. Thus dual qut qïv – usually translated as ‘happiness, well-being, blessing’, should be translated as ‘dual grace’ [from (late Teŋir?)/Heavens and Umaj/Earth]. Ethnonim Qïbçaq originally meant ‘bearer of qïb (qïvqït) [Umaj’s grace]’; the real name of them was ‘sir’ and Tonjukuk, representative of conjugal qatun’s side from aşïde clan, was belonged to them. The Qypçaq left after themselves a great number of stone female statues (kamennye baby) probably served for cult of Umaj in Pontic steppe. The word qïb gave birth to “revision” of reading of ‘oq/uq ~ qo/qu’ letter; they began to read it as qub, and the Quban/Quman (Cuman) are ‘bearers of qut/qub/qum [Teŋir’s grace]. The name of the wife of atabek Mohammed ibn Ildegiz (XII A. D.) was Qubtuba-Qatun.15
Taking into consideration the name of her son Qutluq Ïnanç ‘Blessed Trust’ or ‘Ïnanç (trustee) with celestial grace’, the name Qubtuba-Qatun translated as ‘qatun gave birth to [one who has] celestial grace’.

Table 6

Most likely Kök tied with ‘pair grace’; the syllable itself is elemental of ‘paired’ words: köz – [two] eye(s); kök – dual colour (blue/green); köküz – [two] breast; köt – seat [two thighs]; köt – genitals of both male and female in Kyrgyz; ökkö – two [together] in Kyrgyz. Flag of the medieval Türks, bearers of qut – celestial grace, was blue; flag of the Kyrgyz, bearers of qït – terrestrial grace, was green. The Kyrgyz get Umaj’s blessing through marriage of Chinese commander Li Lin to daughter of Jui-di-heu, Hsiung-nu shanyü; he was appointed to head the Kyrgyz in 99 B. C.

Part II
The immediate proximity to China or/and Taoist influence on Türks could explain the hypothesis of origin of Türkic linearly-angular script, but there are evidences of existence of some ties between nomadic [Türkic] world and Shan-Ying and Zhou cultures. One is the spread of Karasuk culture (Bronze Age’s of pastoralists) which is genetically close to these cultures. Another one is the tradition of the binary ‘religion and power’ among [Türkic] nomads related to structure of Yijing hexagrams. To find evidences in favour of the origin of Türkic script from Zhou tradition, scientific methods require to trace its development between the period of Zhou and the period of documentally dated monuments of the script (at least VII A. D.). In frameworks of the article, we shortly tried to establish this connection through Karasuk (XIII – VII B. C.) → culture of “early nomads” (VII – III B. C.) → Hsiung-nu epoch → the Türks.
There are a lot of literature on origin and spread of Karasuk culture16 and we would like to concentrate on similarities between world outlook of Türkic nomads and Shan-Ying and Zhou pastoralists. We would like to show some similarities between two main symbols which could make such links: Taiji and yin-yang. 1) Taiji, in Chinese art, the symbol of the Great Absolute. It consists of a curved line bisecting a circle, one half of which is red and the other black. Taiji is the starting-point, which was also the finishing-point, of a cyclic cosmic process. 2) Yin-yang are two cosmic contrary powers which synthesis gives birth to all existing. Their relativity and inseparability are symbolized by the inclusion, in the Chinese yin-yang symbol, of a small portion of each within the other. Here we concentrated on finding some characteristics of Türkic culture which show the idea of the balanced division and the idea of numerical order originated from that balance and its influences on picturing and constructing outward thing by the Türks. Second part of the article is in searching ethos17 of the Türkic culture.
The Scytho-Siberian Animal Style

The animal style typical for Karasuk culture. The goats – symbols of [middle] world are used as top of bronze daggers. The “early nomads” inherited many characteristics of the Karasuk culture. One can surmise that the idea about Taiji resulted from the idea of yin-yang (but it must not be ruled out that both matters could develop simultaneously). The dual principles of male and female beginnings are spread widely among different civilizations. After division into two initial elements, the next question has arisen was: “who divided them?” The image of such divider is the mainstream of so called “Scytho-Siberian animal style” [table 8]. There are many interpretations of the “torment scenes” in the animal style of nomadic art. Usually one predator is tearing to pieces and pulling about some other animal (generally herbivorous). S-shaped form of the predator (commonly it is feline predator – qabïlan) is the additional pattern similarity with Taiji symbol which is also has S-shaped form embodied within well known yin-yang symbol. Words ‘to create’, ‘to cleave, to chop’ have one root: ‘jar-’, ‘car-’.

According to Theothilaktus Simocatta (VII A. D.) the Türks “worship to one who created sky and earth”.18 Skies had two levels: near sky – kök (kök çïγïsï – ‘firmament’, kök qalïq – ‘air’, ‘firmament’), and far, high sky – space itself. Ïşbara Qaγan has mentioned about “four seas” lay beyond the bounds of inhabited mainland.19
The S-shaped form resembles the process of making a felt (kijiz), when they strengthening it by the S-shaped scheme rolling from both sides of half-finished felt [table 9 (b) - kijiz]. Making felt or earthenware with its cyclic, circular process could influence ancient minds to factor it into signs symbolized creation of the Universe (about kijiz see below: “The Şïrdaq”).  The circle or/and spiral (labyrinth) is the ancient symbol of the universe and they preserved in the Türkic patterns and symbols [table 9].
Ïrq Bitik 

Ïrq Bitik – the Türkic divination book, it is considered that it has 65 parables. It almost equals to 64 hexagrams. S. E. Malov himself told that short Türkic inscriptions could have rebus, enigma sense, why we cannot surmise the same for long one? Ïrq Bitik begins with the words of Tänsi and three junior divinities which connected to four hexagrams of one kind (one main and three secondary). Two birds in third and fourth parables confirm that this part of the book belongs to ‘celestial’ half. We consider that the first paragraph of the book is not one of 64 omens and predictions collected in this manual for soothsayers. Ïrq Bitik begins from words of Taiji Itself: 
Tänsi män. Jarïn kiçä altun örgin üzä olurupan, mäŋiläjür män. Ança biliŋlär: ädgü ol!20
D. Sinor offered the following line of division of medieval dialects of Eastern Turkestan:21

Ïrq Bitik is written in mixed language, but we cited the instance to show the probable development and variants of the word Taiji: parent-Türkic täňsi tänsi, 2) täjsi. Etymology of the word täňsi is connected with its ‘balance, equal’ meaning; the word could be divided into two parts täň – ‘equal, balance’; as for affix ‘-si’, it is better to ask to speak the Teacher of Türkic turkologists: «‘S’ is a part of verbs, which meaning connected with desire to make particular action. For example ‘suv içisädi’ – ‘he wanted to drink a water’».22
Thus literal sense of the word ‘täňsi is ‘desire to balance’ or ‘[someone who] desires to make a balance’. The word ‘täňsi has synonym which preserved in the Kyrgyz language: täŋir, probably here we have the present progressive tense ‘-r’: täŋir/ täŋer – ‘making balance’, or verbal noun ‘–r’: “balance doer”; ‘er’ as separate word also translated as ‘split’, ‘cleave’, ‘chop’.23

There are a lot of evidences when many words connected to sacral things interpreted literally. It could be reflection of the period when Türkic language was the language of elite and religious rites, which is Shan-Ying and Zhou period.

The Türkic Cosmogonic System
The line of numbers… found among Türkic world picture consists of proportions: ½ ↔ 2/4 ↔ 3/6 ↔ 4/8 ↔ 5/10 ↔ 6/12 etc; ⅔ ↔ 4/6 ↔ 6/9 ↔ 8/12 etc; ¾ ↔ 6/8 ↔ 9/12; ⅓ ↔ 2/6 ↔ 3/9 ↔ 4/12, ¼ ↔ 2/8 ↔ 3/12. The Türks organised outward things with definite system based on such numbers and proportions.
It concerns the structure of Türkic state, based on the model of the Türkic cosmogonic system. The genealogies of the Türkic peoples could help to reconstruct the Türkic cosmogonic system and world picture.
The Turkmen

The numeric line underlay the organization of twenty four Turkmen tribes. The legendary Oguz and his deputy balanced their state out to get steady, eternal structure (beŋgü el – ‘eternal state’) similar with universal one. This numeric line also shows the subordination  order in their state: 1 → ½ → ⅓ → ¼ (direction of subjection). Four tribes (Qayi, Qajat, Alqaraulï, Qaraujlï) of one branch subordinates to branch head (Kün) = [¼], three branches (Kün, Aj, Julduz) subdue to wing head (Buzuq) = [⅓], two wings (Buzuq and Uçuq) are under the One (Oγuz Qaγan) = [½]. All this system reflected in the genealogy of the Turkmen written by Rashid al-Din Fazlulah Hamadani. According to the Persian historian Rashid al-Din, the Turkmen had following structure [table 11]. 
The ‘names’ (epithets?) of six sons grouped into two wings: Buzuq (cosmic) and Uçuq (earthly) are forming dual structure – symmetric and reflective. The ‘names’ of three older sons of Oγuz Qaγan are: Kün Qan, Aj Qan, and Julduz Qan. Kün – ‘sun’, Aj – ‘moon’, and Julduz – ‘star’ are celestial origin. The ‘names’ of three little sons: Kök Qan, Tak Qan, and Deniz Qan are terrestrial ones: Kök – ‘[blue] sky’, Tak – ‘mount’ [taγ], and Deniz – ‘sea’, ‘ocean’. Heavens (right wing) are superior to Earth (left wing). 
Their oŋgons can describe us following picture of the Universe. The oŋgon of these six branches are belonging to different ‘substances’. The word oŋgon probably comes from – ‘lot, destiny, fate’.24
The following branches had ‘heavenly’ oŋgon: Kün Qan – ‘white falcon’, Aj Qan – ‘eagle’, Julduz Qan – tauşandil – ‘eagle for hunting for hares’, Kök Qan – ‘merlin’, and Deniz Qan – ‘red-footed falcon’. But one branch has oŋgon of earthly origin: Tak Qan’s oŋgon is goat.25
These six ‘names’ now picturing structures of two triads: right triad is cosmic, left triad is earthy. These triads symmetric with two reflections on both ends: the STAR – Julduz is reflection of the SUN – Kün, and the SEA – Deniz is opposite to the SKY– Kök.

Table 11

The ‘genealogical’ structure of the Turkmen tells us the representations of the Türks about the nature. Sun, moon, and stars are astronomical bodies. The [blue] sky (atmosphere), mount (land, continent), and sea are constituted the Earth (Umaj). Umaj in Türkic is placenta, afterbirth enveloped a Man.  A dual similarity is clear: sun ↔ star, sky ↕ sea.

The Selçük dynasty was from Qïnïq tribe, Deŋiz branch. Selçük means ‘little river’, see: ‘subï seläŋä ermiş’ – “Selenga (river in Mongolia) was their water” (Mojun-Çur inscription);26  sel-äŋä means ‘river-mother’. There was atabek in the late Selçük period – Shems al-Din Ildegiz (531[1136]--570[1174]). Ildegiz is Il-deŋiz (‘state-ocean’); ‘-ŋ’ is often reproduced as ‘-g’ in Arabic script, for example Moŋol → Mogol.
Six ‘sons’ of Oγuz Qaγan are eating him at all-Turkmen councils (şölen); each one has his own portion of the bull. It probably means that they consist of some part of their ‘father’. Both shoulders, both haunches, both sides of the bull are eaten by branches with celestial oŋgons and spinal column was given to Tak Qan’s branch. Levels of the Turkmen genealogic structure increases from one source and so forth:; one ancestor (source of origin) → Oγuz Qaγan; two wings (balance of contrasts; right/left) → Buzuq/Uçuq; three branches → Kün, Aj, Julduz; four tribes → Qayi, Qajat, Alqaraulï, Qaraujlï etc. 
Rashid al-Din wrote that “word oŋgon comes from inäk, and inäk means ‘blessed’ in Türkic, because they say «inäk bulsun» i.e. be blessed”. ‘Inäk’ also means ‘cow’; the Kyrgyz also consider that they are descendant of one deity and cow. ‘Inäk’ is ‘female tortoise’ – tortoise-shells used in the ancient practice of divination. Both words resembles ‘inä’ – ‘mother’. Thus ‘in’ means something female, maternal. Oγuz itself means ‘bull’ (öküz, ögüz); ögüz probably comes from ‘ög’ – “mind, knowledge, thought” because ‘–z’ is not word-formative, derivational suffix, but plural affix (or duality’s affix). Probably his name tells us the story about the origin of the Universe when it was division of Oγuz Qaγan into two contraries (Buzuq – right wing/Uçuq – left one). The name itself of right and left halves – ‘wing’ –  belongs to celestial one. The word ‘wing’ – ‘qanat’ could be divided into two parts ‘qan’ – ‘khan’ and ‘at’ – ‘horse’ or ‘name’. It could give birth to additional sacral and meanings.
The Oγuz Qaγan gave a bow (semicircle which is curved angle – ‘bozuq’) to three older sons of right wing, and three arrows to three little sons of left wing (‘line and angle’ or most likely triangle) with words: “Since the way of right hand is higher, I gave them the bow, which [equals] to Padishah’s degree; as for arrows, which [equals] Messenger’s degree, I gave it to those, who are from left wing.” In accordance with it, he assigned to them all pastures of right and left wings and ordered: “A throne of sovereign belongs to Bozuq branch; if after me [my] old son Kün be alive – all would proceed to him, otherwise – to second son Aj Semicircle is the half of circle – symbol of Heavens, and angle or triangle is the half of square – symbol of Earth. Semicircle and triangle symbolized the half of visible sky and thereafter [according to balance] the half of earth. Because of the legend about origin of tribal structure of the Turkmen we named the primary elements of the script as ‘Buzuq’ and secondary ones as ‘Uçuq’ [table 1].
It is significant to mark that names, titles, epithets’ list of Türkic ancestors (legendary or real) contain determinant things of Türkic cosmologic order. Twelve tribes of right wing of the Turkmen symbolize twelve year circle and twelve tribes of left wing – twelve months. Could we suggest the same for 24 tribes of Hsiung-nu?
It is reasonable that such kind of sequences modeled from the highest divine order or by the divine’s order. Even in this late legend influenced by Islam, it contains the history that the order was introduced by a certain Er-Jangikent Ïrqïl khwaja who was deputy of Oγuz Qaγan. By that period khwajas, linked with Heavens (or/and with world of ancestors worshiped by Türks) by golden chain of selsela, became divine patrons of many ruling courts of Türkic peoples. The Kyrgyz, another one Türkic people, were presented the divine structure owing to Sufi order Ïşqïyya. Imam Ibrahim Sultan Zarandish, while struggling against Qara-Qïtajs, appointed sons of Ana-l Khakk27  as sardars [commanders] of two wings of the Kyrgyz, Lur khan (left wing) and Lur buzurg (right wing) in 1127. His late successor Mir Jalil sayyed (posterior head of Sufi order Ïşqïyya), sheikh of city Şïrkend, descendant of Imam Ibrahim, son of Jalal al-Din constituted the structure of the Kyrgyz el.
Both legends constructed by one model. Holy ancestor and initiator of the way (Oγuz Qaγan and Imam Ibrahim) structured main rules and organized two wings: Oγuz Qaγan → Bozuq and Uçuq; Imam Ibrahim (Ana-l Khakk?) → Lur khan and Lu buzurg. Their deputies: [Oγuz Qaγan’s] Er-Jangikent Ïrqïl khwaja and [Imam Ibrahim’s] Mir Jalil sayyed constituted the rest structure of the Turkmen and of the Kyrgyz putting them in universal order, bringing them a word of God.
The Kyrgyz
The genealogic structure of the Kyrgyz is also subordinated to cosmic order, but more complicated. It is difficult to decide if it was a union of two formerly separated els or/and very complicated cosmic order and calendar. According to Majmu at-Tavarih (by mullah Saif al-Din Akhsikenti in Tajik language in XVI A.D.),28  possible elteres (or eletmiş)29 Aq Timur Qïpçaq and his seven sons was the first who embarked on the path of spiritual perfection in committed legend, i.e. accepted the divine order. Mullah Saif al-Din coded within text the origin of that celestial scheme reflected in the Kyrgyz el’s structure. The names of his seven (3+4=7) sons: Daulati Jar, Khuda Jar, Berdï, Ali Jar, Musa Jar, Isa Jar, Tule Jar, are code which could be red as: “State was Given by God, Ali,30 Musa, Isa Asked”; daulat –Persian ‘state’, Khuda – Persian ‘God’, berdï – Türkic ‘gave’, jar – Persian ‘friend’, tule – Kyrgyz (tülöö) ‘entreaty’, ‘[pleading] sacrifice’.
The Kyrgyz have got two wings: Aq Oγul [right wing] and Qu Oγul Sol [left wing]. They descendants of Ana-l Khakk: Aq Oγul ibn Boz Oγlan ibn Köktemiş ibn Dolon etc [20]; Qu Oγul ibn Sarï Buγa bij ibn Lakla-k bij ibn Atan etc [24]. According to traditional genealogy the Kyrgyz have three wings, which exist indeed: the ancestor is Dolon bij who has three sons: Aq uul, Quu uul, and Qïzïl uul [3]. Fourth father of Aq Oγul is Dolon, and fourth father of Qu Oγul is Atan; literal meaning of Atan is “your father”. 
The next after Aq Timur Qïpçaq with his seven sons [7], who came to “show his devotion” [to divine order] was Aq uul. Aq Oγul had two sons: Otuz Oγul and Salusbek Bulγaçï [2]. Sons of Bulγaçï: Boston, Tejit, Coo Kesek, Döölös, Qïdïr shah, Qaŋdï [6]. Otuz Oγul had four sons: Adine, Muŋkuş, Qarabaγïş, Taγai [4]. Taγai had six sons: Qojlon, Qïlcïr, Boγoston, Döölös, Qaraçoro [6]. Otuz Oγul and Taγai branches together equal ten [10]. After Taγai Mir Jalil went to the land of Qu Oγul who asked a pray from sayyed. Qu Oγul Sol had six sons: Basïz, Quşçï, Munduz, Çoŋ Baγïş, Saru, Suncek Qïtaj bahadur — they stopped in the house of Lalïm Quşçï. All of them came out to meet the guest and together entered to dwelling of Lalïm Quşçï. Bürkütçi, Kepekçi, Quçşçï [3] served them. Bürkütçi and Quçşçï celestial oŋgons similar with the Turkmen ones, Kepekçi is sea oŋgon resembles terrestrial branch of the Turkmen – Deŋiz.
It is interesting to compare the Kyrgyz genealogic structure with the Yenisei Kyrgyz one in numbers. According to T’an shu: “[Its] bureaucracy subdivided into six [6] categories: ministers, commanders, stewards, secretaries, marshals, and dagans. It is considered that there are seven [7] ministers, three [3] commanders, ten [10] stewards. All those are in command of army. It is considered that there are fifteen secretaries: marshals and dagans do not have ranks… The Kyrgyz sovereign had three ministers: Giexi, Guishabo and Amii bei. All of them managed all state affairs”.31
The el [state] structure of the Kyrgyz of Teŋir Too (‘Celestial Mounts’) inherited all main characteristics of the el [state] of the medieval Kyrgyz in Yenisei: seven ministers of Yenisei qaγan equal to seven sons of Aq Timur Qïpçaq, the rest structure subordinates to particular numeric line which balanced everything. The Kazakh have three wings: senior zhuz, middle zhuz, junior zhuz, which also could be connected to Zhou trigrams.

Space-Numerical System of the Türks
Ancient philosophy did not divide proto-science into branches and connected it to religion and world outlook. Philosophy embraced fields of [modern] subjects of geometry, algebra, physics, chemistry, geography etc. Numbers played an important role in this system. Unfortunately Türkic numerical system is not studied at all, though symbolic role of numbers is doubtless. There are a lot of samples of usage of numbers in titles of Türkic and other nomadic states and cities: üç oγuz, üç qarluq, beş balïq, toquz oquz, altï baγ bodun, on oq, otuz tatar etc.32
The numbers are also used in ritual and magic practice of Türks. Numbers helped to classifying and grouping all things. 
One of the modes of count probably confined to rites and magic practice based on tortoise-shell in Zhou period. When counting from 11 and so forth, they mention unity and after mention tens of higher file: üç jegirmi – ‘13’ (one twenty), bir otuz - ‘21’ (one thirty).33
The Saryg Uigurs still use such system of count: per otuz = 21, per jïgïrma = 11.34
In spatially-numerical world picture, Türks used squares of their kerege – wooden body of yurts. Nine squares together constitute one big square – 10; 9 small squares + one big formed by them = 10.

Thus number ‘11’, for example, geometrically could be represented as it drawn in table  when eleventh [red] square belongs to square of second ten (twenty), i.e. left square – “ten” (on), right one – twenty (jegirmi) and 11 is the first square of second ten: bir jegirmi – eleven (one twenty) [table 13]. Toquz oq[uz] (“9 Arrows”) is name of left “male” wing and on oq [budun] (“10 Arrows”) is name of right “female” junior wing Türks (by male and female side of yurt). The name on oq budun shows junior rank of the right wing in triple hierarchy: el – budun – qïştïm. ‘Nine’ is sacral number among Türks. Nine squares are used in trigrams – halves of hexagrams.
The Tradition of Power Succession among [Türkic] Nomads
The dual male/female, opposite/united structures are represented in schemes of nomadic socio-political organization. Taking as sample the eight main trigrams of Yijing that probably reflected clan structure, the nomadic [Türkic] peoples modeled their states on particular model of divine order and such structures could be traced starting from Hsiung-nu Empire with dual ruling clan (father’s and mother’s phratries). There are some facts that Shan-Ying and Zhou dynasties had same line of succession to the throne, when power delivered from old brother to little one, not from father to son. The system of succession of power is always ritualized and sacralized. The nomadic one is probably obeyed to the system which remained in these eight main trigrams. There are some different orders of trigrams: what if they could reflect different form of succession of power within the above-mentioned dynasties?

Chinese called the head of Huang clan as van (king), not gun (duke) [qian/kun system?].35

Our description of trigrams will be incomplete without mention of the divine order which could be expressed in numeric line: similar with the Turkmen genealogy; one – divider (Taiji, ‘qabïlan’); two – yin-yang, qian-kun; three – zhen-kan-gen, xun,li,dui, four – 4 trigrams of one kind.
Most likely that the same system is underlay the structure of the Türkic Qaγanates. The Türkic qan [father (?) title of Türkic ruler] could originate from qian, and Türkic qunçuj [princess, little queen (from qun or xun?)] is from kun [table 14]. During the existence of the Second Türkic Qaγanate an imperial clan aşïna (Türkic esen – healthy?) divided its power with qatun’s (queen’s) clan – aşïde (eşte – ‘on the position of spouse/life’s companion’?). The ideology of Türks based on the triad of Tenir (Heavens), Umaj (Earth), and El (Türkic state); together with paternal and maternal rulers it constitutes dual and triple structure. The state itself, two wings and its branches and tribes could be named as dual structure with inwardly balanced wings. Sometimes Türkic states (the Kyrgyz sample) have triple balanced scheme (left wing – centre – right wing).

The Şïrdaq
The şïrdaq is quintessence of the Türkic culture. It reflects all things stated in this article. The research itself began from the şirdaq and now ended with it. 
Şïrdaq is the appliqué felt carpet. The technique of felt appliqué among nomads is known from Scythian period (VIII – III B. C.). Şïrdaq is one of few article of everyday material culture made by both men and women. Men make a felt and cut out an appliqué and women sew it together making from two felts of different colours two şïrdaqs [table 12, a]. This technique could provoke an introduction of well-know yin-yang symbol. The şirdaq patterns resemble the Turkmen genealogical structure subordinated to ‘’ line with ‘½, ⅓, ¼’ scheme – main pattern could be divided into four parts [table 12, b, c].

Two halves encircle the central part consisted from six patterns (three whole and three divided). The amount of main patterns is six: one – quaternaries [¼], two – halves [½], three – singles [⅓]. Twin şïrdaqs give twelve main patterns. The name of the main pattern is ‘tabaq’ (tamaq) – ‘dish, food’. The şïrdaq lay at the floor of Türkic yurt could help in calendar works, meat distribution, and political questions. It is interesting that the noun ‘oimo – ‘pattern’, verb ‘oi-’ – ‘appliqué’ connected of the word ‘oi’ – ‘thought, idea’, and stranded yarn which used for embroidery the space between two different coloured pieces of felt is named as ‘ceek’ – ‘shore, border’ [between two contrasts].

In the article we tried to research the origin of Türkic script proceeding from local regional development of civilization. Using line and angle as initial elements of writing allows us to name the script as linearly-angular. We argue that the script must be red below-up, and it was the reason of its limited usage.
The linearly-angular system of extraction of the letters may explain the superficial resemblance between Türkic and Scandinavian ‘runic’ letters if the latter one produced with using of the same signs of the one of the most ancient documented system of divination, because using ‘line’ and ‘angle’ is giving limited kind of forms.
We hope that the article contributes both subjects of ‘religion and power’ and ‘state-building’ among [Türkic] nomads. The kin, tribe, branch, wing must be considered as administrative units in nomadic state. So called ‘tribal union’ constructed by the particular model, which we called as ‘ancestral’ model of nomadic state. The term ‘nomadic state’ means here, not a state established by the nomads, but a state constructed and ruled by the ‘ancestral’ model of state-building structure. 
We gave only short outline of some similarities and ties between Shan-Ying and Zhou cultures and Türkic one. The ancient Hsiung-nu and the medieval Türkic peoples could be called as bearers of ancient traditions of Shan-Ying and Zhou cultures at least. The articulated hypothesis did not answer the question of date of origin of script, but probably locates place.
Kuken Oimoçu and Eleri Bitikçi

1 Thomsen V. Inscriptions de l’Orkon dechiffres // Memoires de la Societe Finne – Ougrienne, Helsingfors 1896; Donner O., Sur l’Origine de l’alphabet turc du Nord de l’Asie // Jornal de la Societe Finno – ougrienne, Vol. 15, № 1, Helsingfors, 1896; Gauthiot R., Note sur la langue et l’ecriture inconnues des documents Stein-Cowley // Journal of Royal  Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 1911; Clauson, G. (1970), The origin of the Turkish “Runic” alphabet. Acta Orientaliae Havniae 32; Лившиц В.А. 1) Происхождение древнетюркской рунической письменности (состояние и пути исследования)   // Всесоюзная тюркологическая конференция: Этнические и историко-культурные связи тюркских народов СССР, Алма-Ата, 1978; 2) О происхождении древнетюркской письменности //Советская тюркология, Москва, 1978, № 4; Аманжолов А.С., Материалы и исследования по истории древнетюркской рунической письменности, Автореферат докторской диссертации, Алма-Ата, 1975; Pritsak O. Turkology and the Comparative Study of the Altaic Languages. The System of the Old Runic Script. Journal of Turkish Studies (4, 1980); Rona-Tas A. On the Development and Origin of the East Turkic “Runic” Script // Acta Orientalia Hungariae (XLI, 1987); Щербак А. М. Тюркская руника (Москва, 2000) et alias
2 Аристов Н. А., Опыт выяснения этнического состава киргиз-казахов Большой орды и кара-киргизов на основании родословных сказаний и сведений  о существующих  родовых делениях и родовых тамгах, а также исторических  данных  и начинающихся антропологических исследованиях//Живая старина, Вып. 3-4, Санкт Петербург, 1912; Поливанов Е.Д., Идеографический мотив в формации орхонского алфавита // Бюллетень Среднеазиатского Государственного университета, Ташкент, 1929, № 9; Emre A.C. Eski Türk yazısının menşeği, Istanbul, 1938 et al.
3 Tables 6 adopted from: Rona-Tas A. On the Development and Origin of the East Turkic “Runic” Script // Acta Orientalia Hungariae (XLI, 1987)
4 There is additional element of the Türkic script ‘.’ – a dot – which meant third element in triad of Heaven, Earth and Man, but this system is secondary and a dot is only auxiliary element of the alphabet
5 The same tradition and principle of various combinations of identical elements could be observed in the formation of the tamga (~clan property signs). For example common denominator with different numerators in tamga and vice verse.
6 All materials related to Yijing are from: Кобзев А. И. Учение о символах и числах в китайской классической философии (Москва, Издательская фирма «Восточная литература», 1994) 49, 50
7 Something “masculine” preserved in the title of the Medieval Kyrgyz ruler in the Southern Siberia ïnal – father (?)
8 Radloff W. Phonetic der nördlichen Türksprachen  (Leipzig, 1882-1883)
9 Кононов А.Н. Грамматика языка тюркских рунических памятников (VII-IX вв.) (Л., 1980); Рясянен М. Материалы по исторической фонетике тюркских языков. Пер. с нем. (М., 1957); Щербак А.М. Сравнительная фонетика тюркских языков (Л., 1970)
10 Тенишев Э.Р. 1) «Отражение диалектов в тюркских рунических и уйгурских памятниках». // Советская тюркология (1976, № 1) 27-33 2) «Язык древне- и среднетюркских письменных памятников в функциональном аспекте». // Вопросы языкознания. (1979, № 2) 80 – 90
11 Батманов И.А. 1) «Некоторые особенности языка памятников орхоно-енисейской письменности и их отражение в современных тюркских языках». // Вопросы диалектологии тюркских языков. Т. III. (Баку, 1963) 118 – 123 2) Батманов И.А., Арагачи З.Б., Бабушкин Г.Ф. Современная и древняя Енисеика ( Фрунзе, 1962) 45 – 50
12  Наделяев В.М. «Чтение орхоно-енисейского знака и этимология имени Тоньюкука». // Тюркологические исследования (М.-Л., 1963) 212.; Рясянен М. Материалы по исторической фонетике тюркских языков. Пер. с нем. (М., 1957) 177-181; Gabain A. von. Alttürkisches Schrifttum. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil. – hist. Kl. . № III (Berlin, 1950) 21-22
13 Щербак А. М. Тюркская руника (Москва, 2000) 61
14 Древнетюркский словарь (Ленинград, 1969) 449
15 Рашид ад-Дин. Сборник летописей. Том I, книга I, пер. Л. А. Хетагурова (Москва, 1952) 100
16 Новгородова Э. А. Древняя Монголия (Москва, 1989); Киселев С. Г. Древняя история Южной Сибири (Москва, 1952) etc.
17 Ethos –quintessence of culture, the system of ideals, values dominating in any particular culture and controlling behavior of its members (term introduced by A. Krouber)
18 Симокатта Феофилакт. История (Москва, 1957) 161, cited from: Кляшторный С. Г. Памятники древнетюркской письменности и этнокультурная история Центральной Азии (Санкт-Петербургб «Наука», 2006) 244
19 Кляшторный С. Г. Памятники древнетюркской письменности и этнокультурная история Центральной Азии (Санкт-Петербургб «Наука», 2006) 245
20 Малов С. Е. Памятники древнетюркской письменности (Москва, Ленинград, 1951) 81. His translation: “I am Tensi (i.e. Chinese emperor). In the morning and in the evening (V. Thomsen: early and late) sitting on the throne I am gladdening. Do know: this is good”
21 Sinor D. «On Turkish Buddhism in Central Asia». // Kőrösi Csoma Archivum. 1. Ergänzungsband, 5. heft (Budapest, 1939) 394; Щербак А.М. Грамматический очерк языка тюркских текстов X-XIII вв. из Восточного Туркестана (М.-Л., 1961) 21-22
22 Махмуд ал-Кашгари. Диван лугат ат-Турк. Пер. З-А. М. Ауэзова (Алматы, «Дайк Пресс») 63
23 Древнетюркский словарь (Ленинград, 1969) 175, 257
24 Древнетюрский словарь (Ленинград, 1969) 367;  - ‘удел, доля’
25 All related to Oγuz Qagan materials are from: Рашид ад-Дин. Сборник летописей. Том I, книга I, пер. Л. А. Хетагурова (Москва, 1952)
26 Translation by S. E. Malov. Древнетюркский словарь (Ленинград, 1969) 512
27 It symbolized here the source, the beginning: it could be God, or Khaladj – one of the first Sufi, which words: ‘Ana-l Khakk’ became famous Sufi aphorism
28 Материалы по истории киргизов и Киргизии (Москва «Восточная литература») 1973
29 Elteres – el-assembler’; eletmiş – el-builder’, ‘state-builder’; el – Türkic state
30 About philo-Alid tendencies among [early] Moslem Türks see: Madelung W. The Spread of Maturidism and the Turks. O. Pritsak noted frequency of the names ‘Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn’ among Qarakhanids
31 Н. Бичурин. Собрание сведений о народах, обитавших в Средней Азии в древние времена. Т. 1 (Алматы, 1998) 361
32 We consider that so called ‘tribal unions’ were states of [nomadic] ancestral model
33 Кононов А.Н. Грамматика языка тюркских рунических памятников (VII – IX вв.) (Л., 1980) 112
34 Малов С.Е. Язык желтых уйгуров (Алма-Ата, 1957) 178
35 Бичурин Н.Я. (Иакинф). Собрание сведений о народах, обитавших в Средней Азии в древние времена. Т. I. (Москва, Ленинград, 1950) 49